Identical twins originate from the same DNA, so how can they turn out to be so different? Even in traits that have a significant genetic component. For instance, why might one twin get a heart disease at the age of 50 while the other has sound health at the same age? Nature v Nurture has a lot to do with it but a deeper related answer can be found within something called Epigenetics. Epigenetics is the study of how DNA interacts with the multitude of smaller molecules found within cells which can activate and deactivate genes.
Genes and DNA are expressed when they are read and transcribed into RNA which is translated into proteins by structures called Ribosomes and proteins are much of what determines a cells characters and functions. DNA is the molecule that controls your life, programs you and it is that part of your inheritance that shapes and determines your future. However some scientists and scholars have argued that this is just a hypothesis and we can control their life and how they grow.
Instead of focusing on the genes, we consider how the signals controls human life. A part of signal transduction where the signals affect heredity is what is known as Epigenetics. It is the most important revolutionary discovery in biology tantamount to the finding of quantum physics as opposed to classical Newtonian physics. “EPI” means “above”, so when epigenetics entails control above the genes. There are proteins built into the membrane that helps you receive environmental signals, these are receptors like; eyes, nose, ear, skin etc. once these signals comes in they convert into a biological response and that is the function of another protein known as effector.
The fact is that gene does not control biology. WHAT IS A GENE? A gene is a physical blueprint to make a protein, this implies that there is no turn and off to a gene. Gene doesn’t control our life, gene doesn’t control our lives but they just set up life. The primal element of life are proteins. Your body/cells are made up of over 150,000 proteins, protein is a Latin word which means “primary article”. Proteins are building blocks that are unique because they can change their shape, when the protein responds to a signal from the environment, the protein undergoes the conformational change. For example, an environmental signal can utter the shape of these protein and cause them to move, the movement is used by the cell to work. Life comes from protein responding to environmental signals.
HOW DOES EPIGENETICS WORK?
Environmental signals influence the proteins and the DNA in the chromosomes. Some environmental signals actually affect the readings of the DNA, this is done through a means known as methylation and it also affects the regulation of the protein. Two sets of chromosomes, some comes from the father and some from the father. Information from Epigenetics involves a process adding CH metal groups which generally silence the gene. Epigenetics has a significant effect on our lives and growth.